Luftperspektive

Luft besteht aus Molekülen, die bestimmte Farben reflektieren, abhängig von Lichtqualität und Tageszeit. An einem sonnigen Tag ist die Luftfarbe Blau, an einem bewölkten Tag Grau, um Sonnenauf- oder -untergang ist sie Orangerot usw.; diese Farbe wird an allen im Bild enthaltenen Objekten reflektiert. Luftperspektive bedeuted, dass je weiter weg ein Objekt vom Betrachter ist, umso mehr Luftfarbe enthält es (z.b. erscheinen Berge, die weit weg sind, an einem sonnigen Tag blau). Luftperspektive in Verbindung mit Linearperspektive kann den Eindruck von Dreidimensionalität in einem Bild erheblich verstärken.

Color Perspective

Air is composed of molecules, that reflect specific colors depending on the light quality of the day and time of the day. On a sunny day the air color is blue, which reflects on everything it contains. On an overcast day, the air color is a shade of gray, around sunrise and sunset it is orange/red and so on. With color perspective, the more an object recedes in space, the more air color is added to the color of your picture element (i.e. far away mountains on a sunny day will look blue). Color perspective in addition to linear perspective greatly enhances the sense of space.

Linear Perspective

With LINEAR PERSPECTIVE we are able to depict three-dimensional reality on a two-dimensional drawing area in a fairly realistically looking manner. Lines parallel to the viewer appear full-scale, while receding lines seem shortened and appear to merge, and objects decrease in size as they recede farther back into space.

The most important references in perspective drawing are the horizon (HZ) and one or more vanishing points (FP). An object seems to get smaller in the distance, and the extended lines of an object meet at the vanishing point. Here you will find a couple of methods how to construct linear two-point perspective.

To construct a fence in correct perspective you have a number of possible solutions. The first one you can see in the picture on the left: The first fence post is drawn as a vertical line. Artificial lines are drawn from top and bottom of this fence post to the vanishing point (FP). To construct an equal distance between the fence posts, you will need another artificial line that goes through the center of the first vertical line and ends at the vanishing point (FP). Now draw another vertical line where you want your second fence post to be, and draw a diagonal through the top of the first vertical line through the center point of the second one all the way to the lower artificial line. At the meeting point of these two lines you can draw the next fence post. Repeat until your fence is as long as you want it.

The second possible solution is to divide the first vertical line into equal segments and connect these points to the vanishing point (FP). Now draw the second vertical line where you would like it. Through the top point and intersection point of second artificial line and second fence post draw an artificial line all the way to the lowest line. The intersection points between the diagonal and artificial lines tell you where to arrange the remaining fence posts.

To draw train tracks, you can use the same solution as in the first example, just used horizontally. From the center of the first horizontal line (train track) draw a perpendicular line to a point at the horizon that is the eye point (AP) and vanishing point at the same time. From both ends of the horizontal line draw artificial lines that meet at the vanishing point (AP). Now draw the second horizontal line where you would like it and connect the end point of the first line to the center point of the second line and extend it to the other artificial line. That intersection point shows where to place the next horizontal line. repeat until finished.

Another technique you can see here: define a vanishing point (FP) and a point (P) on the horizon. At the lower part of the drawing area, draw a line and divide that into equally sized segments. Connect those points to the point (P) on the horizon. Draw the first vertical fencepost on one of these artificial lines. From top and bottom of that fencepost, draw artificial lines to the vanishing point (FP) and construct the rest of the fence using those guides.

To construct a staircase or a house you will usually need two vanishing points. The vertical line that is closest to the viewer is divided into equally sized segments, depending on how many stairs your want your staircase to have. The two slanting artificial lines on the sides of the staircase meet in another vanishing point beyond the drawing area.

Here you see one possible solution to construct a checkerboard with equally sized fields. The points at the lower part of the drawing board determine how many fields the board will have. Point 1 (P1) is part of Vanishing Point 1 (FP1), Point 2 (P2) is part of Vanishing Point 2 (FP2).

An example of a constructed house. Two vanishing points are located on the horizon, one is above the drawing board (roof and chimney). To identify the center of the side of the house (for the highest point of the roof), draw diagonals through the four points of the rectangle and a vertical line through the intersection point of the diagonals.
The further away the vanishing points are from the house, the less extreme the perspective will look like.